August 21, 2020

How Has the Coronavirus Pandemic Affected Federal Spending on SNAP?

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a massive reduction of economic activity in the United States. Millions of Americans are out of work and are relying on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), a key part of the social safety net that provides benefits to help those with low or reduced incomes buy food.

In July, the federal government spent $10.2 billion on SNAP — a 94 percent increase from the amount spent in March. Federal spending on the program has grown at an average of 19 percent per month since April. Such a large increase in spending is unprecedented. The only times where spending on the program has grown nearly as fast were around February 2019, when benefits for that month were advanced to prepare for a government shutdown; in October 2017, when disaster victims received benefits following Hurricanes Harvey and Irma; and during the Great Recession, which left millions of people unemployed.

Federal spending on SNAP rose sharply over the past couple of months

By design, spending on SNAP (sometimes referred to as Food Stamps) automatically rises to cover a greater number of people during economic downturns. In addition, the federal government recently expanded SNAP to provide supplementary financial support to those affected by the pandemic. Both the countercyclical structure of SNAP and recent legislation have contributed to the dramatic increase in spending on the program.

SNAP is an automatic stabilizer — participation in the program naturally increases when the economy slows. Such was the case during the Great Recession, when participation grew about 20 percent, reflecting large numbers of Americans without adequate access to food.1 Today, a similar situation exists because of the COVID-19 pandemic, as significant income loss has made more people eligible for benefits. Between March and April, the latest months for which data are available, participation grew nearly 16 percent.

As noted above, in addition to the countercyclical nature of SNAP, the growth in spending also results from legislative changes to the program. The Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA), which was signed into law on March 18, included provisions that expanded SNAP benefits for new and existing recipients during the ongoing public health emergency. In particular, the FFCRA:

  • Introduced the Pandemic Electronic Benefit Transfer (P-EBT), which provides benefits to families with children that rely on free or reduced-price school meals;
  • Allows states to increase maximum benefits to all households through Emergency Allotments; and
  • Suspends the work and work training requirements for able-bodied adults.

The Congressional Budget Office estimated that those changes will increase program costs by $10.4 billion and $10.8 billion in FY 2020 and FY 2021, respectively.

While SNAP only composes a small portion of the federal budget, it is the largest food security program in the United States. The increase in spending on the program is therefore critical in providing assistance to families during the pandemic.

1 In 2010, 14.5 percent of American households were food insecure at one point — which means that they did not have access to sufficient food due to lack of financial resources.

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Related: What is SNAP? An Overview of the Largest Federal Anti-Hunger Program


Image credit: Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

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