The Fiscal &
Economic Challenge

America’s fiscal health and economic strength are closely linked. A strong fiscal foundation creates conditions that encourage economic growth: an environment with greater access to capital, increased public and private investments, enhanced business and consumer confidence, and a solid safety net. In turn, those factors improve the lives of Americans by supporting a vibrant economy with rising wages and greater opportunity, productivity, and mobility.

Unfortunately, America remains on an unsustainable fiscal path, which threatens our economy. Debt is already at its highest level since just after World War II, and annual deficits are on a steep upward trajectory in the years to come.

Our Current Fiscal Path

The non-partisan Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects that national debt could rise to 180 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) by 2050 under current law. That level of debt would far exceed the 50-year historical average of 43 percent of GDP.

Federal debt is on an unsustainable path

Drivers of the Debt

What is causing the growth of our national debt? The growth of our debt stems from a fundamental imbalance between spending and revenues. Under current law, CBO anticipates that federal spending will grow from 21.0 percent of GDP in 2020 to 30.4 percent in 2050. Revenues are also projected to increase during that period, growing from 16.4 percent of GDP in 2020 to 18.6 percent in 2050 — not enough to match the projected growth of federal spending.

The growing debt is caused by a structural mismatch between spending and revenues

There are three drivers of the large growth in spending: rising healthcare costs per capita, America’s aging population, and rapidly escalating interest costs.

CBO’s most recent full set of long-term projections anticipate that the federal government’s spending on major healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, will climb from 5.3 percent of GDP in 2019 to 9.3 percent of GDP in 2049. Additionally, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services notes that healthcare spending by all sectors of the economy — government, business, and consumers — already accounts for 18 percent of GDP and will continue rising in the future.

Healthcare is the major driver of the projected growth in spending over the long term

The second significant driver of spending is America’s changing demographics. The first wave of the baby-boom generation has already reached retirement age. In addition, Americans are living longer, on average, which means that seniors will spend more years in retirement.

In the coming decades, those factors will add substantially to the number of people supported by programs targeted to older Americans, such as Social Security and Medicare. By 2034, when the Social Security Trustees estimate that the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund will be depleted, the number of beneficiaries is projected to total 73 million people, or about 40 percent more than in 2018. Over the same period, the ratio of workers paying taxes to support each Social Security beneficiary will decline from 3:1 to 2:1.

The elderly population is growing rapidly and living longer

One of the most damaging effects of rising debt is rapidly growing interest costs. As the national debt grows, the U.S. will spend more of its budget on the cost of servicing that debt — crowding out opportunities to invest in the economy. Additionally, interest costs are a major factor in the growth of federal spending. Interest costs are already the fastest-growing component in the federal budget and will total almost $6 trillion in the next 10 years alone, according to CBO.

Net interest costs are projected to rise sharply

Why Debt Matters

With retirement and healthcare programs growing at a faster pace than tax revenues, our fiscal outlook is unsustainable — and that will affect our economy. Within the budget, rising interest costs will squeeze other federal programs that protect the most vulnerable Americans as well as those that support future growth (like education, infrastructure, and research and development). Increased federal borrowing also crowds out private investment, which will reduce future income relative to what would otherwise occur. In addition, high levels of debt limit the ability of the government to respond to future challenges and increase the possibility of a fiscal crisis in the future.

The good news is that this problem is solvable. We can choose a better path — a path of stabilized debt, faster economic growth, broader prosperity, and enhanced economic opportunity and mobility.

The content in this section examines our long-term fiscal challenges in greater detail, including the major drivers, and the fiscal and economic impacts of failing to act.

Key Drivers of the Debt

Key Drivers of the National Debt

Many factors contribute to the long-term outlook for the U.S. economy and budget, but there are two major drivers of spending: demographics and rising healthcare costs.

Read More

The Fiscal & Economic Impact of the National Debt

A strong fiscal outlook is an essential foundation for a growing, thriving economy. Putting our nation on a sustainable fiscal path creates a positive environment for growth, opportunity and prosperity.

Read More

The Fiscal Response to the Coronavirus

Here’s everything Congress has done to respond to the coronavirus so far.

National Debt Clock

See the latest numbers and learn more about the causes of our high and rising debt.